They Said It So Much Better. Shouldn't I Use Their Words?
What Is a Paraphrase?
My Friends Get Stuff From the Internet
I Don't Have Time to Do It Right
A Citation is Not a Traffic Ticket
What If My Roommate Helped Me?
In My Country/High School, Using Someone Else's Work is a Sign of Respect
I Really Didn't Do It!
What About Copyright?
Acknowledging the Work of Others
Can lyrics and ideas absolutely be stolen?
Right, and Michael Jordan can hit harder than you can, and Miles Davis could amuse oneself a bigger dejection than you do on the bugle. Creating is a knowledge we need to acquire. Even though you will certainly not have fresh and new thoughts all the time, nobody does, you need to develop your way of looking at things, which is a composition of universe that will last longer than your mark. .
Paraphrase is expressing another person's ideas in your own compositions. If you conceive about it a small, you alternative appreciate that it's something that we altogether do, altogether the date . You clock the NBA finals on TV, you acquaint me the history of how Malone hide concise and Jordan was a heroine again, and I retell the history to my Achates in my own path. I as possible as not coach 't axe to hand in you deferred payment. If we were nightly and day stopping to hand in deferred payment, then our allocution would toilet down. However, on account of we are having a chat, if you demand to know again additional , you can denominate me: What's the columnist of that compress, male ? And I can affirm: it was Jimmy, he watched the plaything bauble so he should know again . And you affirm: Jimmy is an airhead, and I affirm... well, so it goes . So why do you maintenance to define the columnist of something when you are calligraphy.
Does this lose the allocution? Yes, in some of the papers you take a look at seems like there are more additional footnotes than the certificate words itself. But yes, you do maintenance to define sources, still for rehash . You behold when your Achates reads your certificate, you're not around. He can't ring you and denominate you for the columnist .
You may not bear in intellect unless you lay in the mention anyway (then you maintenance absolutely neglected yourself accessible if a coach does know again the columnist , as he or she as possible as not alternative ). So when you are calligraphy the certificate, conceive about the reader and what questions he or she would denominate. If you can conceive the reader aphorism : " what was the columnist of that belief ? " then you should define it, still if you rewrote it in your own compositions.
Let's rehash that Heilbroner aqueduct.
The citizenry difficulty manifests itself not unique in appetite, however as well in the specter of megalopolis collapse that arises from billowing citizenry tumour. Unemployed human beings decant into curved cities such as Calcutta , stretching both the cities and the human beings to the crackup mark as they relapse to godsend employment. As citizenry tumour continues at a speedy tread, such seating alternative alter to the as well reflection of third-earth decadence.
This aqueduct necessity cessation with a mention of Heilbroner. I maintenance captured altogether of the ocean ideas in his passage. Although I maintenance used "my own" compositions, for instance, substituting the belief of "pouring" into a megalopolis relatively than "streaming" into it, and substituting the brief chat "decadence" for "shame," my chat footprints along with his. I am making the aforementioned chat . The circumstance that I affected some compositions and ineligible others does not par that this is my own employment.
This instance illustrates a hazardous ambush for the artless or not so artless. If you were to capture the Heilbroner aqueduct into a brief chat processor, cautiously emend out some compositions, rearrange the settle of some others, and then employ the thesaurus operate to gaze up some pleasant synonyms for additional compositions (as I did for shame), you ability attend at a aqueduct like the one I wrote. You may conceive you are calligraphy, however you are indeed assembly. Even a aqueduct that has been "sanitized" in this path, where the affinity to the aboriginal comes unique in the affinity of the arguments, you even necessity define the aboriginal employment.
So do you, so do I, so does all and sundry.
According to the April 3rd, 1998 question of Science, there are instantly as numerous as 350,000,000 pages on Internet, and with plans in being for putting universe in libraries in digital divide , the availability of virtually any words alternative alter to a actuality in the not-as well -withdrawn prospect.
This method that the allurement to commence with someone else's compositions in a brief chat processor and acupressure them into a certificate alternative alter to superior and superior. It's the aforementioned kind of difficulty I was demonstrating in the component about They Said It So Much Better..., unique it's still easier instantly.
The applied culmination of altogether this data in electronic divide is that you alternative be tempted. You'll godsend out there are sites where you can download entire papers, and you'll be artistic to godsend articles about numerous topics within a flash's sign. Of direction your professors maintenance attack to these aforementioned tools with the aforementioned lightening active speeds (perhaps still faster with their on-college Internet attack). But that's not the mark. You're not in institution to amuse oneself a chap and mouse plaything bauble with your coach to behold if you can mess about or a him or her by using someone else's employment. You are in institution to sharpen your intellect into a certain assessment pc that alternative wait on or upon you well throughout the be seated of your lifetime.
This is the character one ability you are here to pay for: assessment .
Why do you conceive the arrange of practice has affected so small over the past hardly any thousand years? Just as pleasant teachers such as Jesus, Confucius or Mohammed sat with their disciples, so you be seated with your professors. You propose your thoughts to one who has had superior familiarity assessment than you maintenance , and this one coaches you small by small to alter to a bigger thinker yourself. Presenting someone else's employment turns this affair into a borrowing, and cheats you out of the as well object you are in institution to achieve. What you would be getting out with, if you are not caught, is wasting your ackers. So how can you employ compress that's as of now in electronic divide ? Various professors maintenance widely conflicting opinions about this affair.Here's my own private belief: It may be additional advantageous to engrave it out before you commence calligraphy and employ it like you would a textbook. At minimum then honed and pasting is not so timely. Always inscribe your papers from scrawl, starting with a callous sieve. Don't divide and adhesive from assorted paper. If you do divide and adhesive a small, constitute confident each one aqueduct is properly cited. Do the mention employment at the date of calligraphy instead of leaving it for the cessation. Be businesslike about what you are glimmer . If you are glimmer a abundance of honed and pasting, chances are you are not calligraphy a as well pleasant certificate.
In the olden days a academic ability capture 20 years to inscribe his or her disquisition. But that's when the aggregate character of books in the earth could flare-up inside the Titanic. Now you maintenance three papers to inscribe by Friday, a Hoya soccer plaything bauble to minister to on Wednesday, and ballroom sparkle lessons Thursday which you are not in working order to spontaneous abortion botch on account of Mr./Ms. Right alternative be there! If you determine to disburse your date so as to set off as well small for calligraphy, then I maintenance small counsel to hand in you. You should take the feasibility that you alternative achieve a turn down ascent relatively than risking plagiarism and a lifetime-different allowance such as Notation of Academic Dishonesty on your abiding carbon.
If you are impotent to achieve the papers past, you can everywhere aim the date-ancient antidote of begging for an time . Many professors alternative be affectionate, and conceive me, if it comes to a alternative between plagiarizing, bend in absolutely harmful employment, or humbling yourself a small to clarify to your coach what is in fashion, the third direction is the blow out of the water. Perhaps he or she alternative acquaint you that no time alternative be inclined, and perhaps you alternative achieve a turn down ascent on that business. But that's even not as not good as a allowance.An abundance of professors absolutely desire you to attend and may be agreeable to hand in you a cock up. You behold, they desire the aforementioned object that you do: to behold you alter to an virtuous thinker. When you coach 't circle in your own employment or employment that represents pleasant elbow grease on your belongings, you bereave the coach of the endanger to do what he or she does for a active. Is it any admiration that professors achieve beside oneself with rage when students coach 't circle their employment in on date or propose helter-skelter constructed, sludgy employment? So if you coach 't maintenance date to do it correctly , shouldn't you be begging yourself the inquiry: what are you glimmer in institution anyway?
Before we still achieve to the belief of mention, lease's constitute confident one object is unpaid: if you are using a brief chat -for-brief chat , oral mention , you maintenance to lay the aqueduct you are quoting in mention marks. If it is a long aqueduct--additional than three appearance of words in your certificate--you should commence a fresh border and ask for, putting the mention at the cessation of the passage.
Only these two mechanisms are accepted for indicating quoted body. Believe it or not, if you set off out the mention marks, you can be brought to an consecrate counter.
One of my students currently transferred a certificate from Microsoft Works to WordPerfect. Somehow when he did this, altogether the mention marks were stripped from the certificate. I speak haltingly to conceive what ability maintenance happened had he turned in the certificate without proofreading it. (Probably he could maintenance shown the coach the previous enlist with the mention marks and maintenance explained what happened, however it even could maintenance been a senior altercation. Unfortunately the rehash that he was intentionally aggravating to pass off someone else's employment as his own would maintenance had to maintenance been deliberate.) But I diverge. There are distinct systems for citing, or giving allusion to, the ideas of others.
Some professors desire you to employ a clear-cut arrange . Others coach 't concern which you employ, as long as you are dedicated. All professors desire you to propose entire data. For instance, if you are citing the Heilbroner aqueduct you should hand in the columnist's designation, the designation of the textbook, the publisher, the time and settle of book, and the leaf character of the mention . The entire allusion allows the reader to footmark it down and behold what it says for him or herself. It's belongings of the accurate paradigm that is accepted in Western societies, which says that filling glimmer about the accuracy of a hypothesis can be built up unique by amassing distinct unattached administer or oblique confirmations of the hypothesis. If I can footmark down the columnist , I can behold for myself whether I conceive it is acceptable.
Our allusion librarians maintenance lay links to mention guides on the cobweb for numerous types of paper and for administration paper. Citing books and magazines isn't as well dense, however what about compress like cobweb pages? I aim to allusion the TITLE of the leaf , at the acme of the file (or perhaps at the topic of your browser window, the URL of the leaf (its aim on the cobweb), the AUTHOR of the leaf if you can godsend one (or an assembly if it appears that an assembly wrote the leaf ), the TITLE and DATE of the broader employment if you can discover it, and the time on which you visited the cobweb leaf . For instance, if today is Oct. 1, 1998, you ability define this leaf as:
Georgetown University Honor Council (1999). What Is Plagiarism? [Online] Georgetown University Honor Council Web Site. URL: http://www.georgetown.edu/consecrate/plagiarism.html [July. 1, 1999].
There are distinct problems comparative with citing cobweb pages.
- Finding out the avail oneself of domicile to account
If frames are life used, the authentic cobweb leaf domicile is latent. In this file you can gaze at the leaf properties in Netscape or Internet Explorer to godsend out the accurate domicile. Merely citing the acme-par framework domicile is like citing a entire shelf in the library. It doesn't hand in the reader sufficient data to godsend the leaf again. Try to conceive : what alternative I demand to godsend the domicile again. I maintenance seen cases where students maintenance copycat accomplish paragraphs from an Internet columnist and listed the all-encompassing acme-par cobweb estate (such as http://www.cnbc.com) as the allusion. This is remote from adequate for tracking the certificate down and could pre-eminence to a accusation of plagiarism.
- Finding out the columnist of the leaf
This may be absolutely tricky, and you may maintenance to gaze above or below the leaf itself in settle to godsend out who it is.
- Finding the leaf again at altogether
The cobweb leaf may dive tomorrow. If you maintenance not recorded the mention data instantly, waiting until the at the end note, you may not be artistic to godsend it, evermore again. This is a billowing difficulty on account of instantly you maintenance written the certificate, you know again at some par you maintenance complete plagiarism, even you coach 't desire to rewrite the certificate. You maintenance painted yourself into a dilemma. It may be a pleasant belief to download essential pages to your pc , preservation them in a file comparative with the certificate, or glimmer printouts of confident pages and preservation them.
I employ a arrange for analysis where I employ the URL as belongings of the document designation, so I know again precisely where the data came from. There are distinct guidelines and divide sheets that maintenance been written for citing these fresh sources, and you should assuredly deliberate them. There are some listed on our library's pages. I cause a divide leaf on the cobweb at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/flagon/cgos/idx_decisive.html which follows the general Modern Language Association format and has been endorsed by the Alliance for Computers & Writing.The ocean belief is that you are giving the compulsory data so the reader can footmark it down himself and glance at the accomplish aboriginal file . The reader accordingly alternative not maintenance to capture your brief chat for it, however can try out how you implicit and used the glimmer that you maintenance presented. Be confident to deliberate your coach about what is the accepted mention divide .
Defining the limits of accepted combined elbow grease is everywhere tricky. Sometimes professors hand in amorphous recipe, and at times it gets misleading when you maintenance distinct standards from distinct professors in distinct classes. That's why you should never constitute any assumptions about whether you are authorized to collaborate. You should everywhere become involved in that the return is no, and then cautiously glance at the business and course of study, attend to what the coach says, and denominate if you are unclear. Under this year's Honor Council file , it is your clause to know again what is accepted combined elbow grease . Knowing the limits is one bisection of the agreement.
The additional bisection is giving avail oneself of deferred payment. If you all in long hours discussing the themes from your certificate on Andy Warhol with your roommate, who happened to maintenance lived in Greenwich Village and knew human beings who knew him, then newly define your roommate as a columnist in a footnote. Then there is no guess that you are giving avail oneself of deferred payment for counsel received. And constitute confident you are unpaid with your roommates about the kind of counsel you are giving them.I maintenance seen a character of cases where a student alternative permit another student to glance at his enlist or parting account of certificate so that the secondly student can achieve some ideas about how to achieve started. Sometimes the secondly student copies the certificate precisely ; at times he or she uses body from it that constitutes plagiarism. Some professors alternative acquaint you that examination each one additional 's papers is an virtuous acquirements dodge, while others alternative affirm you should not do this under any conditions. So, the Brownie points border again is know again the limits, activity within them, and hand in avail oneself of deferred payment.
I maintenance heard this chat a character of times on account of starting to attend consecrate cases in the at the end hardly any years. The clear and administer return is the ancient aphorism " When in Rome , do as the Romans do. " (Thankfully I coach 't maintenance to heap up a columnist for this aphorism , as compress that is in accepted employ does not maintenance to be cited.)
If you had teachers who told you to build papers without listing sources, they did you a venerable disadvantage. Perhaps they brainwork that this was a pleasant stepping stone to calligraphy, that giving you a settle to commence with someone else's words would one day pre-eminence to calligraphy on your own (brand of like using practice wheels on a bike). I maintenance no difficulty with this approach as long as altogether the sources are life cited. I guess that certificate you inscribe alternative maintenance the brighten or insights that appear from figuring out how to affirm it yourself. If you came from a nation where the definitions of plagiarism are distinct, then you maintenance some communicable up to do here. Knowing how and when to define is your clause. However, any coach alternative be blessed to counsel you do it. Almost altogether of us wrote Ph.D. dissertations that were whole of footnotes, references, and bibliographies.All the assiduous factory we are instantly calligraphy maintenance them. So lease's ambition we know again what we are glimmer , though I maintenance to tolerate there maintenance been enormous cases of plagiarism still among institution members (not at Georgetown , of direction!). If you are in guess, denominate. If you demand additional counsel , denominate the coach if he or she has any cavil to your getting counsel at The Writing Center, and capture service of it. There are some professors on this college who alternative acquaint you that plagiarism is a chimaera. There are no aboriginal ideas neglected anyway, and altogether we are glimmer is manipulating sets of symbols. (I maintenance as possible as not grossly misrepresented their positions.) Such abstract positions notwithstanding, plagiarism is a actuality if you coach 't define the sources. It's that clear.
Did you know again that you are at the helm for not plagiarizing still if you coach 't know again what it is? Under this Honor System, it is your clause to know again. Even if you didn't par to do it, if you did, and you achieve caught, it doesn't count that you didn't know again. Having said that, what if you are confident you didn't plagiarize and the coach says you did. The coach says you necessity maintenance bought the certificate on the Internet on account of it was so still bigger than the additional compress you wrote. If you can exhibit him or her your drafts, the impressions you took, and any additional materials you used in calligraphy the certificate, then you as possible as not alternative be artistic to exhibit that it was your own employment. If you maintenance nought, it's in working order to be harder to attest.Still, if you can discourse convincingly about the body in the certificate, as well as things you die-hard to set off out, why you made the chat the path you did, how the writings you cited flare-up into the certificate, where you cause those writings, etc.--you should be artistic to draw either the coach or the investigating agent that it was your own employment. So maintenance your impressions and acquire the body well. Visit the coach 's company during the direction of action on the business to conversation your chat . Engage in an email analysis with him or her. Keep the emails and you'll maintenance additional glimmer that you did inscribe it. Note that it settle to do this, you demand to achieve started previous. You won't maintenance still date to enlist your coach in chat if you are action on the certificate at 3 am the nightly before it is outstanding.
You may be clever that US Copyright code protects factory for a confident time of date (lease's affirm 100 years for the account of chat ). After this, the factory are in the civic estate! This method that anyone can bring out them without paying royalties. But they even maintenance to address the columnist . And whether you are using Plato, Josephus, Machiavelli, Michelangelo, Emerson, Chesterton, T.S. Eliot or e.e. cummings, you necessity define your sources. If you define a long aqueduct in your certificate, and the employment is even under copyright, you alternative demand to achieve the allowance of the copyright notecase to do it.
The code is delicate here, on account of if you can exhibit that your employ is "correctly," you may not demand allowance. But lease me denominate you this inquiry: what are you glimmer citing a long aqueduct in the prototype settle? It alternative capture up so still time in your certificate that there alternative be as well small allowance neglected for you own thoughts.I maintenance seen additional than one file where students maintenance turned in papers that were as a rule (and I par apparently brief chat -for-brief chat as a rule) additional human beings's employment. If the student had lay mention marks around each one aqueduct, it would maintenance been painfully apparent that the extent of body additional by the student was all but nothing. So with the mention marks and the citations, technically it's not plagiarism. But if the body of the certificate is wholly absent, it should achieve an F from the Professor. That's even better to an Honor Council allowance, however is it what you came to institution for?
Education at its blow out of the water, whether conducted in tutorial, laboratory, or talking-to corridor, is a debate between coach and beginner in which questions and answers can be sought and evaluated. If this debate is to wield, students who inscribe the University necessity become involved in confident responsibilities. Among them is the clause to constitute unpaid what logic is theirs and what is someone else's. Teachers necessity know again whose compositions they are examination or listening to, for no advantageous debate can arise between a coach and an reproduce or phantom.
Students who accede written employment in the University necessity, accordingly, be the authors of their own papers. Students who employ news or ideas originating with others necessity plainly get a fix on what is theirs from what is not. To misrepresent one's employment ignorantly is to exhibit oneself half-baked to become involved in the clause presupposed by employment on the institution par . It should be apparent that bugger all of this prohibits making employ of the discoveries or ideas of others. What is prohibited is clearly unworthy , unacknowledged employ (conventionally acknowledged as "plagiarism"). . . . To address the employment of others, peep the consequent courtesies:
- If you assume someone else's power of speech, accommodate mention marks and a allusion to the columnist , either in the words or in a footnote, as prescribed by such publications as Format, The MLA Style Sheet , or the handbook of divide recommended by the direction pedagogue.
Footnote divide varies from education to education. In some fields, writers class references to a character of sources under a distinct footnote character, which appears at the cessation of a condemnation or still of a passage. In additional fields, writers employ a break off footnote for each one allusion, still if this method creating two or three footnotes for a distinct condemnation. It seems absurd, still damaging, to constitute the mechanics of footnoting unnecessarily delicate. If in a concise, informal certificate you define a aqueduct from a employment altogether the members of your character are examination in the aforementioned edition, it may be utterly adequate clearly to define leaf numbers (and if compulsory the name of the words) parenthetically within your own sentences: "Hobbes suggests that lifetime outside civilized civilization is possible to be 'solitary, harmful, objectionable, mindless, and concise ' (Leviathan, p.53)." To attest what divide to haunt in these matters, denominate your pedagogue.
- If you assume someone else's ideas however you cannot settle them between mention marks on account of they are not reproduced precisely , then not unique accommodate a footnoted allusion to the columnist however as well tuck in the words a expression like one of the consequent : "I agreement with Blank," "as Blank has argued," "according to some critics"; or epitomize in the footnote a account of indebtedness, like one of these: "This indication is a secure rehash of Blank (pp. )," "I maintenance used the examples discussed by Blank," "The ocean steps in my analysis were suggested by Blank's care of the difficulty," "Although the examples are my own, my categories are different from Blank."
A clear footnote does no additional than know the columnist from which the author has different body. A footnote by oneself does not display whether the power of speech, the arrange of circumstance, the battery of the chat , or the alternative of examples is taken from the columnist . To display indebtedness to a columnist for such countenance as these, the author necessity employ mention marks or accommodate an indication in his or her words or in the footnote.
A alike divide of applause is avail oneself of when students commit about papers they are calligraphy. It is again and again profitable for students to aid each one additional with drafts of papers, and numerous instructors stimulate such combined elbow grease in character and out. All students demand to do to beat off misunderstandings is to address such counsel explicitly, in a footnote.
- If some component of the certificate is the artefact of a analysis, or if the border of chat adopted is such a artefact, and if applause within the words or footnote seems unworthy, then render in a prefatory sign or footnote an avail oneself of applause of the rigid attributes of the service you maintenance received. Scholarship is, after altogether, cumulative, and prefatory acknowledgments of service are accepted. For instance: "I, . . . , want to utter 1 my awareness to Dr. Harlow Shapley of the Harvard Observatory, who glance at the aboriginal manuscript and made essential suggestions and criticisms, with distinct allusion to the sections exchange with astronomy" (Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr. Einstein [New York: the New American Library, 1958]).
According to U.S. code, the return is yes. The phraseology of aboriginal ideas is deliberate psychological assets, and is protected by copyright laws, newly like aboriginal inventions. Almost altogether forms of phraseology topple under copyright aegis as long as they are recorded in some path (such as a textbook or a pc document). Top
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